Being aware of PCK, and your growing understanding of the art of teaching, can help you progress from a good to a great teacher more quickly and easily. Or, the circulatory system before the digestive system in Biology?
PCK has been called craft knowledge, but you may call it good teaching. These include, but are not limited to the following: When you combine your knowledge of the content with your knowledge of how to teach it, you are transforming the content through pedagogy.
The most important key to these core practices is creating a culture of high expectations through building routines. The term pedagogical content knowledge was coined by Lee Shulman in the mid 80s. These routines may include the teacher modeling how he or she makes sense of the text.
Obviously, to obtain PCK, self-reflective teaching is needed. Double-entry journals where students post questions, observations of patterns in the texts, summarize, make connections; K-W-L — a graphic where students identify what they already know Kwhat they want to know W and after reading what they have learned L ; Graphic organizers that use text structures to guide what kinds of information students are reading for or that map out the kinds of semantic knowledge students need to understand vocabulary synonyms, antonyms, examples, attributes, morphemic analysis ; Anticipation Guides that list key ideas including ideas that are counter-intuitive or controversial that the teacher wants students to interrogate in reading a given text and to re-visit after reading; Annotation of texts to pose questions, mark main ideas, make predictions, mark reactions; Analyzing question types; Support for producing self-explanations.
He stated that teacher-training programs were separating the what content from the how pedagogy when preparing teachers for the field.
As opposed to asking students to read for homework or as a classroom assignment and then simply answer questions when they finish reading, literacy-rich, content-area classrooms include a variety of instructional routines that provide guidance to students before, during and after reading.
PCK is 1 knowing how to organize and present the curriculum for students, 2 being aware of misconceptions, prior knowledge, and particular problems students may have when learning new subject matter, and 3 having specific methods or strategies for the classroom situation or environment.
Teachers also use a variety of thinking tools that direct students to engage in generic reading strategies. You might want to give it a try as you prepare your lessons and units for next fall.
Learn to deconstruct complex sentences Use knowledge of text structures and genres to predict main and subordinate ideas Map graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in the text Pose discipline relevant questions Compare claims and propositions across texts Use norms for reasoning within the discipline i.
This tool was then given to young teachers to see how it helped their preparation and delivery of lessons. Good teachers, according to Shulman, move beyond simply knowing their subject matter, and knowing how to teach; they transform the subject matter through teaching. Reinforce conceptions of reading as a meaning-making process; Provide Content knowledge essay support for making sense while students are engaged in acts of reading; Shift responsibility for thinking and making sense of texts to students themselves through guided supports in both small and whole group work; Sequence discipline-specific inquiry tasks and the reading of a range of discipline-focused texts in ways that build knowledge over time; Focus classroom talk on how students make sense of texts and how they use what they learn from texts to carry out discipline-specific thinking tasks; Provide consistent supports so that students experience success and develop or reinforce their sense of efficacy as readers.
Or, have you seen better test scores when you teach electricity before fluid mechanics in Physics? Shulman proposed a framework of six steps: Shulman said it best when he took an old cliche, and made it new again:The Content Knowledge Essay is required of ALL science applicants with or without a degree in science: Briefly address how your college coursework as well as your experiences beyond the classroom have supported your.
Gess-Newsome () suggests five overlapping categories that elaborate on Shulman's original notion: conceptual knowledge, subject matter knowledge, the nature of the discipline, content-specific teaching orientations and contextual influences.
Pedagogical content knowledge is the integration of subject expertise and skilled teaching of that particular subject.
It was first developed by Lee Shulman in CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHING: WHAT MAKES IT SPECIAL? Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Mark Hoover Thames, and Geoffrey Phelps While teacher content knowledge is crucially important to the improvement of teaching and.
The term content knowledge refers to the body of knowledge and information that teachers teach and that students are expected to learn in a given subject or content area, such as English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies.
Content knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are. How Different Types of Knowledge Are Assessed This chapter is concerned with making learning visible.
Unless a teacher can see, hear, or use other senses to detect a student’s learning, the teacher cannot know whether learning has taken place.Download